Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe, 1802)

Atlantic menhaden
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Brevoortia tyrannus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden)
Brevoortia tyrannus
Picture by Flescher, D.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Brevoortia: From James Carson Brevoort (1818-1887), studie the fauna from Ohio and South Caroline (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau ; pH range: 1.0 - 36.0; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188).   Subtropical; ? - 26°C (Ref. 38970); 46°N - 30°N, 81°W - 64°W (Ref. 54290)

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada southward to Indian River, Florida, USA.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 18 - 32 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 188)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 18-24; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 18 - 24. Upper jaw with median notch. Pelvic fin with rounded hind margin, inner fin rays equal or nearly equal to outer fin rays when fin folded back. Pre-dorsal scales modified; scales on back, above base of anal fin and at base of tail much smaller and irregularly placed. A black spot behind gill opening, followed along flank by approximately 6 lines of smaller spots (Ref. 188). Silvery, with brassy sides and a dark bluish green back (Ref. 7251).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Found inshore in summer, but at least some moving into deeper water in winter. Adults are found in near surface waters (Ref. 38984), usually in shallow areas overlying continental shelf, in greatest abundance immediately adjacent to major estuaries (Ref. 4639). Juveniles are also generally pelagic, with smallest size groups farthest up river (Ref. 38986). Form large and very compact schools, both of juveniles and adults. Migrate north - south; also in and out of bays and inlets. Feed by filtering phytoplankton (diatoms (Ref. 5951)) and zooplankton (small crustaceans, annelid worms and detritus (Ref. 5951)). High water temperatures apparently limit breeding. Spawn probably all year; nursery areas in estuaries. Larvae are pelagic (Ref. 38985), probably spend about a month in waters over continental shelf (Ref. 38983), entering estuarine waters at about 10 mm and larger (Ref. 844). Marketed fresh, salted, canned or smoked. Mainly used for production of oil, fertilizer and fishmeal (Ref. 188). Parasites found are isopods, copepod, cestodes and trematodes (Ref. 37032).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Breeding season apparently limited by high water temperatures (20.5°C monthly mean maximum). Spawning activity occurring almost every month in some part of the range (Ref. 2472, 39013, 844). Spawning temperature ranges from 4.4°C to 23.6°C, with peak activity at 15-18°C (Ref. 39014). Salinity ranges from 10 ppt (Ref. 39015) to usually greater than 25 ppt (Ref. 844). Fecundity observed is from 38,000 to 631,000 eggs per season (Ref. 39013).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 July 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi
FAO(Perikanan: production, profail spesis; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.5 - 24.4, mean 13.2 (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00532 - 0.01881), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.4; tm=1-3; Fec=38,000).
Prior r = 0.31, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.46, Based on 1 stock assessment.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Low.