Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic halibut
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Hippoglossus hippoglossus
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Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Hippoglossus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser demersal; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 50 - 2000 m (Ref. 4705).   Temperate; 79°N - 36°N, 77°W - 55°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Spitsbergen, Barents Sea, Iceland and eastern Greenland. Western Atlantic: southwestern Greenland and Labrador in Canada to Virginia in USA (Ref. 7251).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 122.0, range 135 - ? cm
Max length : 470 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 7251); 300.0 cm TL (female); max. veröff. Gewicht: 320.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. veröff. Alter: 50 Jahre (Ref. 173)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 98-110; Afterflossenstacheln 0; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 73 - 85. Uniformly dark brown or black; young marbled or spotted with paler marks (Ref. 4705).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Adults are benthic but occasionally pelagic (Ref. 4705). Feed mainly on other fishes (cod, haddock, pogge, sand-eels, herring, capelin), but also takes cephalopods, large crustaceans and other bottom-living animals. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Growth rate varies according to density, competition and availability of food. Slow growth rate and late onset of sexual maturity, halibut populations can be seriously affected by overfishing (Ref. 35388). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; can be steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Also Ref. 58426.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Males reach sexual maturity at 7-8 years and females at 10-11 years. Spawning happens from December to April, near the bottom (300 to 700 m), at temperatures between 5 and 7°. Egg size 3.0-3.8, larval size at hatching 6.5 mm (Ref. 4705).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Partner

Nielsen, J.G., 1986. Pleuronectidae. p. 1299-1307. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4705)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  stark gefährdet (EN) (A1d); Date assessed: 01 August 1996

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell; Aquakultur: experimental; Sportfisch: ja; Aquarium: Öffentliche Aquarien
FAO(Aquakultur: production; Fischereien: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.4 - 7.9, mean 3.4 (based on 1760 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00388 - 0.01125), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 69278):  sehr niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert mehr als 14 Jahre. (tmax=30; tm=10; K=0.02-0.2; Fec=1,300,000; also Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717)).
Prior r = 0.47, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.71, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Very high.