Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Scophthalmus maximus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) 鰈形目 (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots) 菱鮃科 (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   溫帶; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.
東北大西洋: 在地中海各處而且沿著歐洲的岸邊到北極圈圓圈; 也發現於大部分的波羅海。 在黑海的亞種 瘤棘鮃〔Psetta maxima〕 maeotica

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 32766)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).
身體幾乎圓形。 眼側邊沒有鱗片但是有大的多骨小瘤.(參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

成魚生活在沙的﹐岩石的或混合的底部上; 相當常見於半鹹淡水域。 主要捕食其他的底棲魚 (沙子-鰻魚,鰕虎魚, 等等。), 以及, 對較少的範圍, 在較大的甲殼動物與二枚貝上。 分批產卵者.(參考文獻 51846) 產卵季節在四月與八月之間; 大洋性的卵。 可以達到 25 公斤。 (參考文獻 9988) 深受喜愛的食用魚。 生鮮使用或冷凍; 清蒸, 油鍋炸的﹐火烤的, 煮沸., 微波.而且燒烤..(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.東北大西洋: 在地中海各處而且沿著歐洲的岸邊到北極圈圓圈; 也發現於大部分的波羅海。 在黑海的亞種 瘤棘鮃〔Psetta maxima〕 maeotica

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 119314)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋



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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00869 - 0.01321), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.60, Based on 8 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.