Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Pollachius: Scottish dialect, podlock, paddle = bumpfish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 37 - 364 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 77°N - 33°N, 76°W - 35°E
Eastern Atlantic: Barents Sea, Spitsbergen to Bay of Biscay, around Iceland. Western Atlantic: southwest Greenland, Hudson Strait to North Carolina, although rare at the extremes of the range. Migrations for spawning are known to occur. Also long-distance north-south migrations for Europe and the US.
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 39.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 1371); common length : 60.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4645); peso máx. publicado: 32.0 kg (Ref. 7251); idade máx. registrada: 25 anos (Ref. 1371)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0. Chin barbel small. Lateral line smooth along its entire length. Body color is brownish-green dorsally, becoming only slightly paler ventrally. The lateral line pale.
An active, gregarious fish occurring inshore and offshore waters. Usually enters coastal waters in spring and returns to deeper waters in winter (Ref. 9988). Smaller fish in inshore waters feed on small crustaceans (copepods, amphipods, euphausiids) and small fish, while larger fish prey predominantly upon fishes. Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para os humanos
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: altamente comercial; peixe esportivo: sim
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.5 - 10.2, mean 7 (based on 292 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00578 - 0.00755), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.3 (5.6 - 11.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (rm=0.55-0.87; K=0.07-0.17; tm=2-10; tmax=25; Fec=220,000).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.76, Based on 17 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .