Trichiurus lepturus, Largehead hairtail : fisheries, gamefish

Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus 1758

Largehead hairtail
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Trichiurus lepturus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Trichiurus lepturus (Largehead hairtail)
Trichiurus lepturus
Picture by CSIRO

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Scombriformes (Mackerels) > Trichiuridae (Cutlassfishes) > Trichiurinae
Etymology: Trichiurus: Greek, thrix = hair + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335);  lepturus: Specific name from Greek 'lepturus', for its thin or slender tail.  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater benthopelagisch; amfidroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 0 - 589 m (Ref. 58018), usually 100 - 350 m (Ref. 35388).   Subtropical; 49°N - 54°S, 114°W - 180°E (Ref. 54931)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Circumtropical and temperate waters of the world. Trichiurus japonicus which was originally described from Japan as Trichiurus lepturus japonicus was synonymized with Trichiurus lepturus. Another nominal species synonymized with Trichiurus lepturus is Trichiurus nitens from the eastern Pacific Ocean (California to Peru).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 50.6, range 30 - 99 cm
Max length : 234 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 26340); common length : 100.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 26999); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 5.0 kg (Ref. ); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 15 jaren (Ref. 7142)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 3; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 130-135; Anale zachte stralen: 100 - 105. Body extremely elongate, compressed and tapering to a point. Mouth large with a dermal process at the tip of each jaw. Dorsal fin relatively high; anal fin reduced to minute spinules usually embedded in the skin or slightly breaking through; anterior margin of pectoral fin spine not serrated. Pelvic and caudal fins absent. Lateral line beginning at the upper margin of the gill cover, running oblique to behind the tip of the pectoral fins, then straight close to the ventral contour. Fresh specimens steely blue with silvery reflections, becoming uniformly silvery gray sometime after death (Ref. 6181).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Generally over muddy bottoms of shallow coastal waters (Ref. 9351). Often enter estuaries (Ref. 9351). Juveniles feed mostly on euphausiids, small pelagic planktonic crustaceans and small fishes; adults feed mainly on fishes and occasionally on squids and crustaceans (Ref. 6181). Adults and juveniles have opposing complementary vertical diurnal feeding migration. Large adults usually feed near the surface during the daytime and migrate to the bottom at night. Juveniles and small adults form schools 100 m above the bottom during the daytime and form loose feeding aggregations at night near the surface. Pelagic eggs (Ref. 35388) and larvae (Ref. 6768). Max weight of 1.5 kg given in Ref. 28023 seems too low. The current angling world record was caught in Rio de Janeiro's Guanabara Bay and weighed 3.69 kg. Commercial fisherman have caught fish of up to 5 kg (Capt. Eduardo Baumeier, pers. Comm., 2001). Marketed salted or dried and also frozen (Ref. 9351). Excellent taste when fried or grilled; also for sashimi when fresh.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Parin, Nikolay V. | Medewerkers

Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 15. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the snake mackerels, snoeks, escolars, gemfishes, sackfishes, domine, oilfish, cutlassfishes,. scabbardfishes, hairtails, and frostfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(15):136 p. (Ref. 6181)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 29 January 2013

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.1 - 23.2, mean 15.2 °C (based on 1178 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00032 (0.00026 - 0.00040), b=3.16 (3.10 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.7 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.25-0.29; tm=2-3.7; tmax=15; Fec=21,672).
Prior r = 0.80, 95% CL = 0.53 - 1.20, Based on 15 stock assessments.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   High.