Hypanus americanus, Southern stingray : fisheries, gamefish

Hypanus americanus (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928)

Southern stingray
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Hypanus americanus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
  More on authors: Hildebrand & Schroeder.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater rifbewoner; diepteverspreiding 0 - 53 m (Ref. 13608), usually ? - 4 m (Ref. 55205).   Subtropical; 36°N - 4°S, 100°W - 37°W (Ref. 55205)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Brazil, including the Antilles (Ref. 3168).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 85.0, range 75 - 80 cm
Max length : 200 cm WD mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3168); common length : 90.0 cm WD mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3168); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 135.6 kg (Ref. 40637); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 28 jaren (Ref. 53968)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Disk has sharp outer corners and irregular row of short spines on upper surface (Ref. 26938). Disk usually uniform dark brown above, grayer in young. Ventral finfold on tail long and high, dorsal finfold absent (Ref. 7251). Upper surface of disc gray, dark or olivaceous brown or olive green. Lower surface of disc white or whitish with an edging of gray or brown (Ref. 6902).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found on sandy bottoms, seagrass beds, lagoons and the reef face (Ref. 12951). Common in bays and estuaries (Ref. 7251). Observed singly, in pairs and in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Buries in the sand during the day and forages at night, usually in seagrass beds (Ref. 12951). Feeds mainly on bivalves and worms and also takes shrimps, crabs and small fishes (Ref. 3168). Feeds by creating depressions in the sand to expose invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9710). Ovoviviparous, with 3-4 in a litter (Ref. 12951). May be found in cleaning stations where they are attended to by the bluehead wrasse and Spanish hogfish (Ref. 12951). Equipped with a well-developed serrated spine and capable of inflicting a painful laceration. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Male mounts on female dorsally (Ref. 12951).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : McEachran, John | Medewerkers

Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Onvoldoende gegevens (DD) ; Date assessed: 02 February 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)





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Meer informatie

Landen
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voedselitems
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voedselhoeveelheid
Populaire namen
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Geslachtsrijpheid
Kuitschieten
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eieren
Ontwikkeling van de eieren
Leeftijd/Grootte
Groei
Lengte-gewicht parameters
Lengte-lengte parameters
Lengtefrequenties
Morfometrie
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Populatiedynamica van de larven
recrutering
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.7 - 28.1, mean 27.3 (based on 795 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (tmax=28; Fec=3-4).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Low.