Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Perch-likes) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Scomberomorus: Latin, scomber = mackerel + Greek, moros = silly, stupid (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas associadas(os) a recifes; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 5 - 140 m (Ref. 36484), usually 5 - 15 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 44°N - 22°S, 98°W - 34°W (Ref. 54879)
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts, USA to São Paulo, Brazil. Eastern Central Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 63.3, range 45 - 114 cm
Max length : 184 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 9710); common length : 70.0 cm FL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 168); peso máx. publicado: 45.0 kg (Ref. 168); idade máx. registrada: 14 anos (Ref. 4949)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 12 - 18; Raios dorsais (total): 15-18; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 16 - 20; Vértebras: 41 - 43. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Swim bladder absent. Lateral line abruptly curving downward below second dorsal fin. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Adults have no black area on the anterior part of the first dorsal fin. Juveniles with bronze spots in 5 or 6 irregular rows. Body entirely covered with scales.
Often found in outer reef areas. Larvae are encountered in surface waters of 26.3° to 31°C and 26.9 to 35 ppt. Feeds primarily on fishes with smaller quantities of penaeid shrimps and squids. Large schools have been found to migrate over considerable distances along the Atlantic US coast, water temperature permitting. It is an important species for recreational, commercial, and artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Most of the catch is processed into steaks or sold fresh, or sometimes canned and salted. Also prepared smoked and frozen (Ref. 9987). Potentially ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 9710). Sometimes called "Kingfish" (Ref. 13442).
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para os humanos
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.1, mean 27.2 (based on 1034 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00731 - 0.01191), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.9 (5.8 - 8.5) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 22 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.07-0.15; tm=2; tmax=14; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.66, 95% CL = 0.43 - 0.99, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .