Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 9710), usually 3 - 40 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); - 23°S
Western Central Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to Barbados and northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabit burrows made of crushed coral or sand. Hovers vertically, above or near its hole. The male courts the female by swimming in an arched position with his fins spread towards her (Ref. 9710). Male broods the eggs orally (Ref. 5521). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35427).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders. Eggs which are clumped together in a sticky ball get incubated inside the male's mouth (Ref. 5521). Monogamous mating is observed irrespective of resource abundance (Ref. 52884).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28, mean 27 °C (based on 402 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .