Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); flabellare: flabellare meaning fan tail (Ref. 10294). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 34°N
North America: Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec in Canada to Minnesota, and south to South Carolina (in Santee River system) in northern Alabama, and northeastern Oklahoma in the USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabit rocky riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in small to medium upland streams (Ref. 10294). Adults feed on midge, blackfly, and caddisfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, isopods, and amphipods (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone and guarded by males (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone (Ref. 7043). Males guard the eggs (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00237 - 0.01272), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.81; tmax=4; Fec=10-121).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .