Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes
(Mackerel sharks) > Mitsukurinidae
Etymology: Mitsukurina: After Keigo Mitsukuri; he worked in zoological names with Y. Iwasaki, 1896; Imperial University. More on author: Jordan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 30 - 1300 m (Ref. 43278), usually 270 - 960 m (Ref. 43278). Deep-water; 48°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E
Western Atlantic: Guyana (Ref. 6871), Suriname (Ref. 13608, 11228) and French Guiana. Eastern Atlantic: France (Bay of Biscay), Madeira, Portugal, and South Africa. Western Indian Ocean: off South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan, Australia (South Australia, New South Wales), New Zealand (Ref. 26346). Eastern Pacific: USA (southern California) (Ref. 43278).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 264 - 322 cm
Max length : 617 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83323); common length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 0. Flat, bladelike, elongated snout, tiny eyes without nictitating eyelids, soft, flabby body, slender, very long cusped teeth in long, protrusible jaws, long caudal fin without a ventral lobe (Ref. 247). Pinkish-white with bluish fins, becoming brownish grey after death (Ref. 5578, 11228).
Found on outer continental shelves and upper slopes, but rarely in shallow water close inshore (Ref. 247, 43278). Jaws are highly specialized for rapid projection from the head to snap up small animals (Ref. 247). Feeds on jacopever, pelagic octopus and crabs (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 50449). Probably slow-moving and neutrally buoyant (Ref. 6871). Utilized dried salted (Ref. 247)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed (Ref. 247, 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.8 - 13.7, mean 8.3 °C (based on 1037 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .