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Larvae Information Summary for  Limanda limanda
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Main Ref: Russell, F.S. 1976
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 4 2.7 3.6  
Preanal L. % TL 46.7 44.4 45.5  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northeast Atlantic
Yolk-sac ovoid   unpigmented Ref:  
Yolk unsegmented Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal compressed
Striking feature none
Shape of gut spherical or gut loop
Gas bladder   early invisible late invisible
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail with single melanophore
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal with marginal melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
Two diagnostic characters: marginal melanophores on the pectoral fins, and regular spaced melanophores in the rows along the ventral contour on either side of the body. At a length of about 7.0 mm the tail becomes heterocercal.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max 4.3   Jan Feb Mar Apr
min 3.8   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Froese,Rainer - 19.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 04.12.01
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