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Larvae Information Summary for  Mullus surmuletus
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Main Ref: Russell, F.S. 1976
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)     2.83  
Preanal L. % TL     34.5  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Mediterranean
Yolk-sac elongated   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk segmented Oil globules one oil globuleanteriorcentralpigmented
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
The yolk sac projects 0.3 mm beyond the snout. Anus situated close behind the posterior end of the yolk. 1-2 dorsal and 2 ventral melanophores on caudal area.
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature none
Shape of gut triangular
Gas bladder   early invisible late invisible
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail dorsal + lateral + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early pigmented late pigmented
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
At 4 mm, 10-12 melanophores on the ventral row extending from the anus to about 2/3 of the postanal length. At 7 mm, the urostyle begins to turn up. At 8 mm additional melanophores appear all over the sides of the body.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod 4   Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Papasissi,Christine - 19.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 17.07.02
Checked by: Giovanardi,Otello - 15.02.91
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