Nibea soldado (Lacepède, 1802)
Soldier croaker
Pla juad,  Pla chaud,  Pla chaud ma,  Pla chaud thao,  Pla juad ma,  Pla juad thao,  Pla ma,  ปลาจวด,  ปลาจวดม้า,  ปลาจวดเทา,  ปลาม้า
Nibea soldado
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Max. size:  60 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 40 m, amphidromous
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: coasts of India and Sri Lanka eastwards extending to Queensland, Australia and New Guinea and north to Viet Nam (Ref. 3490). Found in the lower Mekong basin (Ref. 36667).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27-33; Anal spines: 2-2; Anal soft rays: 7-7. Snout rounded, but not swollen or projecting; upper jaw length 38-44 % of head length, lower jaw length 44-53 % of head length. First pair of mental pores close together, united by a crescent-shaped groove just behind symphysis. Teeth differentiated into large and small in both jaws. Second anal spine long, stiff, 39-59 % of head length. From 8 to 13 scale rows above lateral line to origin of dorsal fin, 12-17 scale rows below lateral line to origin of anal fin (total 21-29 scale rows). Swim bladder carrot-shaped, with 18-22 pairs of arborescent appendages along its sides, the first pair entering head beyond transverse septum. Sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the tail of which is J-shaped.
Biology:  Inhabits shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 9772). Juveniles occur in brackish estuaries and often ascend the lower reaches of large, turbid rivers (Ref. 2847). Found in the basin-wide mainstream of the lower Mekong (Ref. 36667). Encountered in medium to large-sized rivers both in the lower and middle Mekong (Ref. 12975). Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates. Marketed fresh as well as dried salted.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 29 June 2016 Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Found in the Mekong basin, Chanthaburi, Si Racha (Chon Buri), Bang Khen (Bangkok), Klong Wan (Prachuap Khiri Khan), Thai waters and Songkhla (Ref. 37773). Also Ref. 9772.

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