Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg, 1933
Hardenberg's anchovy
photo by Shao, K.T.

Family:  Engraulidae (Anchovies), subfamily: Engraulinae
Max. size:  8 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: northern part of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Aden, not Red Sea or the Persian Gulf, eastward to Burma) and western Pacific (Gulf of Thailand, Java Sea, also Hong Kong, Fujian and Taiwan Island; if correctly identified, then reaches to Fiji and Samoa) (Ref. 189). Mediterranean: Tel Aviv, Israel (Ref. 96660).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 14-17. Belly with 4 to 8 small needle-like scutes; a small pre-dorsal spine in some specimens. Maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or beyond hind border of pre-operculum, the latter concave, indented near maxilla tip. Fine teeth on upper edge of hyoid bones. A double pigment line on back behind dorsal fin; tail deep yellow (at least in Indian specimens).
Biology:  Coastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). A schooling species occurring in coastal waters. More data needed based on correct identifications. The record from the Godavari estuary implies tolerance of lowered salinities, but the identity of the material is uncertain (perhaps S. waitei). Appears to be fairly common throughout its range. Used as bait in the tuna fishery in the South Pacific, although rather fragile.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 28 February 2017 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

Entered by: Binohlan, Crispina B. - 17.10.90
Modified by: Bailly, Nicolas - 04.11.15
Checked by: Binohlan, Crispina B. - 12.07.94

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