Raja miraletus Linnaeus, 1758
Brown ray
Raja miraletus
photo by Furlan, B.

Family:  Rajidae (Skates), subfamily: Rajinae
Max. size:  63 cm TL (male/unsexed); 59.7 cm TL (female)
Environment:  demersal; depth range 17 - 462 m
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: northern Portugal and throughout the Mediterranean to Madeira and South Africa. Reported from the Canary Islands (Ref. 3167) but occurrence needs verification (Ref. 6808). Also in southwestern part of the Indian Ocean.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 0-0. Snout short and bluntly pointed; disc angular (Ref. 5578). Upper surface prickly only in young, nearly smooth in adults, underside smooth (Ref. 3167). Upper surface ochre to reddish-brown with scattered dark spots, underside white (Ref. 3167); two bright blue eyespots centered on the pectoral bases (Ref. 5578); may have a small dark spot on tip of snout (Ref. 2708).
Biology:  Found over soft bottoms of the shelf and the uppermost slope (Ref. 5578). Depth range from 17-300 m, and up to depth of 462 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals, also on fish offal (Ref. 5578). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.2-4.6 cm long and 2.7-2.9 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40-72 eggs are lain by an individual in a year (Ref. 41250). Caught by ski-boat anglers (Ref. 5578).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 05 September 2003 Ref. (119314)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   
 

Entered by: Luna, Susan M. - 11.02.92
Modified by: Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen - 29.10.10
Checked by: Agustin, Liza Q. - 11.04.94

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