Carapus dubius (Putnam, 1874)
Pacific pearlfish

Family:  Carapidae (Pearlfishes), subfamily: Carapinae
Max. size:  15 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  demersal; marine; depth range 2 - 79 m
Distribution:  Eastern Pacific: Hawaii (Ref. 6347) and from Baja California, Mexico to Colombia. Record from the Antilles by Ref. 26340 is not supported by Ref. 34024.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 142-148; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 153-160; Vertebrae: 113-118. Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; maxilla free and movable; cardiform teeth present; branchiostegal membranes partly or completely united; swim bladder with thin terminal membrane or bulb; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone (Ref. 34024). 19-20 precaudal vertebrae (Ref. 38407). Branchiostegal rays: 6-7 (Ref. 36487).
Biology:  Uncommon species (Ref. 34024). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Adults inhabit the body cavity of pearl shells (Pinctada), pen shells (Pinna), and cockles (Laevicardium). Oviparous, with pelagic vexillifer stage larva, and benthic tenuis stage larva (Ref. 36487). Also found in following shells in the Gulf of California: Megapitaria squalida, M. aurantiaca, Laevicardium elatum and Spondylus princeps (Ref. 38407).
IUCN Red List Status: Data deficient (DD); Date assessed: 23 May 2007 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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