Albula esuncula (Garman, 1899)
Eastern Pacific bonefish
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Family:  Albulidae (Bonefishes), subfamily: Albulinae
Max. size:  32 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; brackish; marine
Distribution:  Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California, Mexico to at least San Pablo, Ecuador.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-18; Anal soft rays: 8-9. Distinguished from A. gilberti by diagnostic nucleotide substitutions at 17 different sites in the 544 bp cytb gene segment. In A. esuncula, the pelvic-fin tip does not surpass the anterior edge of the anus whereas it may reach the posterior edge in A. gilberti. In A. esuncula, the number of pelvic-fin rays is always 10 whereas it varies from 9 to 12 in A. gilberti. Lateral-line scale counts and numbers of rakers on the first gill arch are lower in A. esuncula (68–71 vs. 68–73 and 3–8 vs. 4–10, respectively). Since we examined only four or nine specimens of A. esuncula, according to the characteristic, the diagnostic value of the meristic differences between both species and the position of the pelvic-fin tip should not be considered validated yet and be used with caution (Ref. 88068).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 01 May 2008 Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
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