||Inhabits rocky riffles of cold streams, rocky areas of lakes (commonly at 90-106 m depth), springs and their effluents (Ref. 5723). Occurs in rocky reefs, prefering rock substrate for protection from common predators (Ref. 46644). Moves into shallow water to spawn (Ref. 27547). In some areas, they are common in brackish water (Ref. 27843), presumably moving to and from fresh water, at least for spawning (Ref. 27547). Feeds mostly on aquatic insect larvae and nymphs but also on crustaceans, small fishes, and plant materials (Ref. 1998).