||Occurs inshore in summer, but at least some move into deeper water in winter (but perhaps not in south of range). Forms large and very compact schools, both of adults and juveniles. North /south migrations (spring and summer versus autumn) occur, as also short-term migrations in and out of bays and inlets depending on tides, season and weather. Adults are obligate filter-feeders, while larvae and prejuvenile fish (smaller than 4.0 cm TL) are particulate feeders (Ref. 46977). Preyed upon by sharks, cod, pollock, hakes, bluefish, tuna, swordfish, seabirds, whales and porpoises (Ref. 5951).