Common names from other countries
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Pseudocaranx: Greek, pseudes = false + French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
The species Pseudocaranx cheilio (Snyder, 1904) is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697) following Randall (2007: Ref. 86689). The species Pseudocaranx georgianus (Cuvier, 1833) is considered as valid in CofF ver. May. 2011 following Smith-Vaniz & Jelks (2006: Ref. 76781), with Caranx luna Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817, Caranx platessa Cuvier, 1833, Caranx nobilis Macleay,1881, and Usacaranx archeyi Griffin, 1932 as synonyms.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 238 m (Ref. 58302), usually 10 - 25 m (Ref. 5288). Tropical; 40°N - 47°S
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to southern Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean, Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Ascension and St. Helena Island. Indo-Pacific: South Africa, Japan, Hawaii (Ref. 26145), Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands, New Zealand. Reported from New Caledonia (Ref. 9070).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - 37 cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4887); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 18.1 kg (Ref. 4887); max. reported age: 49 years (Ref. 31614)
soft rays: 21 - 22;
Vertebrae: 25. Greenish blue above, silvery white below; midside of body with yellow stripe; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). LL with 20-26 scutes (Ref. 6390). With maxilla the rear edge sloping slightly forward to its main axis, a large, diffuse dark blotch on the operculum, and a lateral line with 57-78 scales in the curved portion and 34-46 posterior scutes (Ref. 33616).
Adults occur in bays and coastal waters, including estuaries (Ref. 9563). Juveniles usually inhabit estuaries, bays and shallow continental shelf waters, while adults form schools near the sea bed on the continental shelf (Ref. 6390). Schools are found at the surface, in mid-water and on the bottom and are often associated with reefs and rough bottom (Ref. 9072). Schools are sometimes mixed with Caranx koheru and Arripis trutta (Ref. 9072). Feed on plankton by ram-filtering and suction feeding and on bottom invertebrates (Ref. 9072, 30206). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Cultured only in Japan. (Ref. 4931). One of the best table fish 'being indeed the salmon of St. Helena' (Ref. 5288).
They are usually partial spawners, releasing eggs in small batches at intervals over a period of several weeks (Ref. 27733).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 25.9, mean 22.3 (based on 362 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00879 - 0.02269), b=2.96 (2.83 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18(?); tmax=46(?)).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .