Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Zoarcinae
Etymology: Zoarces: Greek, zoarkes, -es = that gives life (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 388 m (Ref. 58426). Temperate; ? - 10°C (Ref. 35432); 63°N - 37°N, 80°W - 43°W
Northwest Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 4926); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 796)
Benthic; feeds on worms, crustaceans, molluscs, sea squirts, sea urchins and fishes (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are laid in gelatinous masses guarded by one or both parents until hatching (Ref. 35432). However, more recent evidence suggests that care is provided by the female alone (Ref. 104883).
Anderson, M.E., 1994. Systematics and osteology of the Zoarcidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. 60:120 p. (Ref. 11954)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 9.5, mean 3 (based on 227 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00398 (0.00168 - 0.00943), b=3.10 (2.88 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.11; tmax=18).
Prior r = 0.35, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 0.57, log(r) = -1.05, SD log(r) = 0.25, Based on: 1 M, 2 K, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .