Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rhinobatidae
(Guitarfishes) > Rhinobatinae
Etymology: Trygonorrhina: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 180 m (Ref. 12951). Temperate; 31°S - 41°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 126 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871); max. published weight: 6.7 kg (Ref. 6870)
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to Australia.
Common near the coast (Ref. 6871), on sandy bottoms and seagrass areas, often near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Ranges from the intertidal to 180 m (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous with golden egg capsules, each with up to 3 embryos (Ref. 12951). The flesh is good to eat, although only a small quantity is sold in seafood outlets (Ref. 6871).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .