Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Tropidophoxinellus: Greek, trope, -idos = turn + Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish; diminituve (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 42°N - 36°N, 9°W - 1°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556)
soft rays: 7 - 9. Diagnosed from other Cyprinidae in Iberian Peninsula by the following characters: barbels absent; dark midlateral stripe from snout to caudal base; body slender, depth 3.8-4.4 times in SL; 37-42 + 2-3 scales on lateral line; mouth opening upward; and anal fin with usually 8½ branched rays (Ref. 59043).
Europe: Iberian Peninsula in Douro, Tagus, Sado, Guadiana, Odiel, Guadalquivir and Quarteira drainages. Introduced in Júca drainage. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Lives in schools in lowland rivers and lakes. Feeds on invertebrates, chiefly small crustaceans and insect larvae. Breeds in April-May among aquatic plants and on stony bottoms in shallow water. Threatened due to pollution, habitat destruction and the introduction of other species (Ref. 26100). The species is unique as it represents a stable all-male lineage nested within an almost all-female hybrid lineage (Ref. 49905).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
This species originated as a hybrid that is now recognized as a species and consists only of diploid males. The males mate with triploid females that are current hybrids. These females produce haploid eggs with chromosomes that are identical to those of the males. These matings apparently produce only males.
Doadrio, I. and J.A. Carmona, 2006. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in the Iberian Peninsula, with description of two new species. Cybium 30(3):199-214. (Ref. 72459)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00390 - 0.01696), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .