Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Synapturichthys: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, aptein = to join + Greek, oura = tail + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 460 m (Ref. 5304). Subtropical; 44°N - 32°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3200); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean: Mediterranean south to Durban, South Africa.
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms; mainly in shallow water (Ref. 3200).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00712 - 0.01939), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), based on LWR estimates for species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .