Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Klunzinger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea and East Africa to the central Indian Ocean and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: Mexico and Panama. The exact range is uncertain because of confusion with Sphyraena jello and Sphyraena putnamae (Ref. 9768).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768); max. published weight: 7.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 7 - 9. Many dark bars crossing lateral line on body, each bar oblique in upper half, but nearly vertical in the lower; caudal fin largely blackish. No gill rakers on first arch; upper and lower gill arch with rough platelets, each platelet not bearing distinct spine.
Found near current-swept lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 89972). Usually seen in large semi-stationary schools during the day (Ref. 9768) which have a tendency to occupy the same site for months or even years at a time. Probably disperses at night to feed (Ref. 1602). Often hooked by trolling between dusk and dawn (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De Sylva, D.P. and F. Williams, 1986. Sphyraenidae. p. 721-726. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4537)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.1 - 29, mean 28.1 (based on 1626 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .