Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 120 m (Ref. 12260), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 32°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768)
soft rays: 9. Body elongate and subcylindrical with small cycloid scales; head long and pointed. Mouth large and horizontal, the tip of the lower jaw protruding; intermaxilla non-protractile. Preoperculum rectangular, with wide naked skin flap. First dorsal fin origin slightly before the pectoral fin tip, the first spine equal to the second. Pelvic fins well before the tip of the pectoral, closer to the anal than the tip of the lower jaw. Color is generally green above and silvery below.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe Island. Migrated to eastern Mediterranean from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Ref. 5385). The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena flavicauda (Ref. 9768).
Inhabits bays and estuaries (Ref. 9768). Found in schools in seagrass beds and rocky reefs (Ref. 9563). Feeds mainly on fishes. Exhibits diurnal behavior. Also caught with set nets (Ref. 9768). Sold fresh, frozen or dried salted in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rose, J.H., 1984. Sphyraenidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 4752)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00640 - 0.00942), b=2.90 (2.85 - 2.95), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5-0.9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .