Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 2000 - 3000 m (Ref. 35599), usually 2000 - 3000 m (Ref. 35599). Deep-water
Eastern Central Pacific: ranges from northern California, USA to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Generally caught in midwater (Ref. 35599). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and leptocephalus larvae (Ref. 35599). Degenerative changes in males and females suggest semelparity (Ref. 35599).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Charter, S.R., 1996. Saccopharyngidae: whiptail gulpers. p. 151-153. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Atlas No. 33. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 1505 p. (Ref. 35599)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.6 - 2.3, mean 1.8 (based on 657 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .