Pseudotolithus senegalensis  (Valenciennes, 1833)

Cassava croaker
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Pseudotolithus senegalensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pseudotolithus senegalensis
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 3593).   Tropical; 27°N - 22°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: west coast of Africa, from Morocco to Angola, but rare north of Senegal (Ref. 57396). Also reported from Namibia (Ref. 3593).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 35.0, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 114 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); max. published weight: 12.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 28-33; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: large fish, elongate and compressed; eyes small; snout short; mouth large and oblique; lower jaw prominent; both jaws with bands of villiform teeth (upper jaw with teeth in outer row larger and sharper, including a pair of large median canines, lower jaw with teeth in inner row larger and sharper); 6 pores on chin and 5 marginal pores on snout; gill rakers long and slender, longer than gill filaments at angle of 1st gill arch; dorsal fin long and deeply notched; second anal fin spine rather short and slender, attaining about 2/3 of the length of 1st soft ray and comprised over 3 times in head length; caudal fin pointed; scales weakly ctenoid on body, cycloid on snout and suborbital region; lateral line extending to end of caudal fin; swim bladder carrot-shaped, its front end with a pair of appendices subdividing into an anterior group of short branches and 2 posterior groups of long, slender tubules, one of them ventral, the other dorso-lateral and longer, bordering the bladder throughout its length (Ref. 57396). Coloration: silvery grey, with series of small dark spots following scale rows, oblique on anterior part of back and sides, horizontal posteriorly; black spot at tip of spinous part of dorsal fin; pelvics and anal fin more or less dark yellowish; caudal fin dark; inside of gill cover black (Ref. 57396).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters over muddy, sandy or rocky bottoms. Smaller individuals found in shallow waters, but rarely entering estuaries. Feed on fish, shrimps and crabs (Ref. 28587). Spawn from November to March in waters of 22 to 25°C in the Gulf of Guinea. Most economically important demersal fish in West African waters.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.71 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.33; tmax=8; assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.