Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Retropinnidae
(New Zealand smelts) > Prototroctinae
Etymology: Prototroctes: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, troktos, -e, -on = edible (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 46888). Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 34°S - 45°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 5259)
Oceania: coastal drainages of southeastern Australia from the Grose River near Sydney southward and westward to the eastern part of South Australia, including Tasmania and King Island in Bass Strait.
Adults inhabit creeks and rivers, usually in cool, clear waters over gravel bottoms in sections alternating between pools and rapids. Usually found in clear, moderate to fast-flowing water in the upper reaches of rivers (sometimes to altitudes above 1000 meters). Often forming aggregations below barriers to upstream movement. Timid species that forms fast-moving shoals (Ref. 44894). Often form large schools especially prior to spawning. Feed on small crustaceans, insects and their larvae and algae. The intestinal tract is long, s specialization to assist in the breakdown of ingested plant material (Ref. 44894). Spawn: Feb.-May; 25,000-68,000 eggs which sink to bottom downstream of spawning site. Hatching: 10-20 days; larvae, 6-7 mm TL, swept downstream to estuaries and the sea, return to freshwater after 6 months.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7656 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00154 - 0.00938), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.34 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.45; tmax=6; Fec=25,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .