Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 42 m (Ref. 27665), usually 1 - 9 m (Ref. 27665). Tropical; 28°N - 24°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Indo-Pacific: Mauritius to the Line, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, south to New Caledonia and the Cook Islands. Replaced by Apogon menesemus in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
Inhabits seaward reefs, in rocky and coralline areas. In or near shelter by day (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on free-swimming crustaceans (Ref. 13550). Solitary or in small groups (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., 1998. Review of the cardinalfishes (Apogonidae) of the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of two new species. Aqua J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 3(1):25-38. (Ref. 27665)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .