Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Centrarchidae
Etymology: Pomoxis: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, oxys = sharp (Ref. 45335); nigromaculatus: nigromaculatus meaning black spotted (Ref. 1998).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; ? - 31°C (Ref. 12741); 52°N - 27°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 27.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 46974)
North America: widely introduced throughout USA that native range is difficult to determine; presumably Atlantic Slope from Virginia to Florida, Gulf Slope west to Texas in the USA, St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Manitoba in Canada south to Gulf of Mexico.
Adults inhabit lakes, ponds, sloughs, and backwaters and pools of streams (Ref. 1998, 10294). They usually occur among vegetation over mud or sand, most common in clear water. They form schools (Ref. 1998). Feed early in the morning, from midnight to 2 am (Ref. 1998). Individuals up to 16 cm feed on planktonic crustaceans and free-swimming, nocturnal, and dipterous larvae; larger individuals feed on small fishes (Ref. 1998, 10294). May be preyed upon by other fishes (Ref. 1998).
Nests are built by males, by clearing an area on the sand, mud or gravel bottom. Females probably spawn with different males in more than one nest (Ref. 1998). Males guard the eggs for about 5 days (Ref. 93240).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00925 - 0.01360), b=3.05 (2.99 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.45; tmax=13; Fec=26,700).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .