Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 328 m (Ref. 56504), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 35388). Subtropical; 58°N - 14°N, 32°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 88921); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); max. published weight: 680.00 g (Ref. 88921)
Head very steep. No spots or stripes on body or fins (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (occasionally Scandinavia) to Dakar, Senegal, Canary Islands, Mediterranean and Black Sea. Also known from the Azores (Ref. 4845).
Found on gravel, sand and mud bottoms of the continental shelf. Depth range from 10-300 m (Ref. 07313) and up to depth of 328 in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on small benthic crustaceans, worms and mollusks (Ref. 4845). Marketed mainly fresh (Ref. 9987).
Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00745 - 0.00928), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.5; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .