Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on author: Bleeker.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical; 13°N - 20°S, 21°W - 17°E (Ref. 55)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 139 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 60.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. Diagnosis: head pointed; gape of mouth wide (Ref. 57393). Maxilla extending nearly to mid-eye level (Ref. 55, 57393). Vomerine tooth plate triangular, sometimes with a short postero-median extension (Ref. 57393). Preopercular notch and knob weak; pectoral fins of adults not reaching level of anus (Ref. 55). Scales medium-sized; 5 or 6 transverse scale rows on cheeks (Ref. 57393). Scale rows on back parallel to lateral line (Ref. 55, 57393), 4 rows below middle of spinous part of dorsal fin (Ref. 57393). Reddish brown to slightly orange on back and upper sides, grading to pink or whitish on lower sides and belly; tips of pelvic fins very dark (Ref. 55, 57393). No blue line on cheeks (Ref. 57393). Juveniles with a series of about 6 to 8 vertical rows of small white spots or narrow bars on side (Ref. 55, 57393).
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola (Ref. 10795, 57393), including Cape Verde (Ref. 10795).
Adults inhabit rocky bottoms and coral reefs (Ref. 55, 57393). Also common in brackish lagoons and found in lower courses of rivers, particularly juveniles (Ref. 55, 57393). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00749 - 0.01931), b=2.90 (2.77 - 3.03), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .