Lithognathus lithognathus  (Cuvier, 1829)

White steenbras
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Lithognathus lithognathus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lithognathus lithognathus (White steenbras)
Lithognathus lithognathus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Lithognathus: Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 27121).   Subtropical; 22°S - 31°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southeast Atlantic: known only from the Orange River mouth to Natal, South Africa.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 54.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Silvery in color, crossbars fade with age.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over sandy substrate, in estuaries and oceanic waters. Enters lagoons (Ref. 3198). Feeds bottom invertebrates, including worms, crabs and shrimp (Ref. 27121). Spawns in the sea but uses estuaries as nursery grounds. Prime angling fish. Important food fish. Sold fresh and whole in markets.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bcd; B2ab(ii,v))

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12.5 - 24.1, mean 15.7 (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00947 - 0.02651), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.