Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Kyphosidae
(Sea chubs) > Kyphosinae
Etymology: Kyphosus: Greek, kyphos = bent (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 30°N - 28°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa south to Algoa Bay, South Africa (Ref. 6642) and east to the Hawaiian, Tuamoto, and Rapa islands.
Aggregate over hard, algal coated bottoms of exposed surf-swept outer reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs to a depth of at least 24 m. Found in exposed areas around rocky reefs (Ref. 559). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually in groups (Ref. 90102). Young (up to 5 cm) found among floating seaweed; feeding on small crustaceans (Ref. 559). Adults are carnivorous during summer and autumn but feed on Endarachne binghamiae during winter (Ref. 559). Good food fish (Ref. 559). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30573.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00680 - 0.02934), b=3.00 (2.81 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .