Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Disc ovate, broadly rounded. Tails with blunt tubercles. Upper surface dark brown, sooty olive. Edges of disc darker. Lower surface of disc and pelvic fins yellowish or cream white. Teeth little darker than lower surface (Ref. 6902).
Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Campeche and the West Indies to Suriname (Ref. 3168); including Brazil (Ref. 53430). Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Found on sandy bottoms, occasionally near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Marketed salted; also used in the preparation of gelatin and oil.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Stehmann, M., J.D. McEachran and R. Vergara R., 1978. Dasyatidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00472 - 0.02924), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .