Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Hemigaleidae
Etymology: Hemigaleus: Greek, hemis = the half + Greek,galeos = a shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 244); 28°N - 30°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 78 - ? cm
Max length : 114 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
soft rays: 0. Australian specimens with dark-tipped fins; tooth counts 28-34/43-54; total vertebral counts 111 to 118 (Ref. 13567). Indonesian, Singapore and Thailand specimens with light-tipped fins; tooth counts 25-32/37-43; total vertebral counts 137 to 150 (Ref. 13567). Grey-brown above, lighter below, dorsal fins with white tips and posterior margins, sometimes with spots on sides of body (Ref. 13567).
Indo-West Pacific: southern India and Sri Lanka; China to Indonesia. Recent study confirmed that those found in Australia (and probably Papua New Guinea) is a separate species, Hemigaleus australiensis (Ref. 56150). Also from Red Sea (Ref. 93009).
A small, relatively common inshore and offshore shark of tropical continental seas (Ref. 13567). Feeds mainly on cephalopods, particularly octopi (Ref. 13567) but also takes crustaceans and cephalopods (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Taken regularly in inshore artisanal fisheries (Ref.244), commonly caught by inshore gillnet, bottom trawl and, to a lesser extent, longline fisheries. Utilized for human consumption (Ref. 244). Offal used for fishmeal (Ref. 244).
Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; 4 to 14 fetuses in a litter (Ref. 13567); 2-4 pups after a gestation period of ~ 6 months; born at ~ 45-47 cm TL (Ref.58048). Size of full-term fetuses (detached umbilical cords and placentae) ranges from 23.7 to 25.6 cm (Ref. 244). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00141 - 0.00980), b=3.11 (2.88 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .