Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Sebastidae
(Rockfishes, rockcods and thornyheads) > Sebastinae
Etymology: Helicolenus: Greek, helike, -es = spiral + Greek, lenos, -ou = cavity (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 50 - 1100 m (Ref. 41452), usually 150 - 600 m (Ref. 84778). Deep-water, preferred 22°C (Ref. 107945); 70°N - 46°S
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Venezuela. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland (Ref. 12462) and Norway to the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Guinea, including Madeira, the Azores, and the Canary Islands; also Walvis Bay, Namibia to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4313).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89108); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4510); max. published weight: 1.6 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 43 years (Ref. 41452)
Adults are found in soft bottom areas of the continental shelf and upper slope. They feed on both benthic and pelagic organisms (crustaceans, fishes, cephalopods, and echinoderms) (Ref. 4570). The reproductive mode is a zygoparous form of oviparity, intermediate between oviparity and viviparity (Ref. 36265, 79712). Larvae and juveniles are pelagic (Ref. 4570). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Sold fresh (Ref. 27121).
The reproductive mode is a zygoparous form of oviparity, intermediate between oviparity and viviparity (Ref. 36265, 79712). Eggs covered with gelatinous material are fertilised in the ovary. Eggs are released into the seabed at various stages of development and larvae assumes a planktonic existence once the gelatinous covering dissolves (Ref. 31150).
Eschmeyer, W.N. and L.J. Dempster, 1990. Scorpaenidae. p. 665-679. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4510)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00936 - 0.01345), b=3.09 (3.04 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.06-0.2; tm=13-16; tmax=43).
Prior r = 0.25, 2 SD range = 0.12 - 0.50, log(r) = -1.39, SD log(r) = 0.36, Based on: 1 M, 14 K, 3 tgen, 7 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .