Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ogilby.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 8 - 40 m (Ref. 2295). Subtropical; 15°S - 25°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Inner surface of pectoral fin without scales. Overall color is silver or whitish, often light brown or olive on upper sides. Each scale on sides has a brown spot forming longitudinal rows. Fins are uniformly clear to slightly yellowish. Fresh specimen have scattered brown flecks on sides. A blackish bar that runs through the eye may also be evident.
Western Pacific: Australia (east coast of southern Queensland and the southern half of the Great Barrier Reef). The name bitorquatus has been applied to this species, particularly by Australian authors.
Generally solitary over sand or rubble areas adjacent to reefs . Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates. Sometimes has a distasteful iodine flavor; however, untainted fish are good to eat.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01033 - 0.04036), b=2.99 (2.81 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.56; tmax=13).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .