Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 6871). Tropical; 24°N - 32°S, 91°E - 156°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 150 - 180 cm
Max length : 270 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9909)
Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, south to Australia. Records from the south coast of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar need confirmation.
Occurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to offshore continental and insular shelves (Ref. 9909). Adults are found offshore waters while young individuals are found inshore on sand flats, around atolls, and in mangrove swamps (Ref. 6871). Feeds on shellfish (Ref. 9909). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Reported to live and breed permanently in fresh water (Ref. 6871). Probably the major commercial guitarfish in the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 9909). Caught regularly by demersal tangle net fisheries operating throughout the area. Utilized for its meat, fins (both very high value), skin and cartilage (Ref.58048). Reported to attain a maximum length of 4 m (Ref. 58784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Born at 38-40 cm TL (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00224 - 0.02238), b=3.05 (2.80 - 3.30), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .