Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 1371). Polar; 79°N - 43°N, 156°W - 45°E (Ref. 54442)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 77.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7275); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 28073)
spines: 0. Head relatively broad, interorbital space 18-25% of head length. Generally dark shading to paler ventrally. Peritoneum dark.
Arctic to Northwest Atlantic, and Northeast Atlantic: Port Barrow, Alaska to West Greenland, then south along Canadian coast to the Miramichi, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island. Northeast Atlantic: a disjunct population in the White Sea exists. The stock has been strongly reduced in recent years.
Non-schooling (Ref. 28073). Lives close to the coast and is rarely found offshore, in deeper water (Ref. 1371). Benthic, shallows and deepwater to 400 m (Ref. 58426). Feeds on fishes (capelin, polar cod, smaller Greenland cod and Greenland halibut (Ref. 5951)), shrimps, crabs, euphausiids, squids, polychaetes, and echinoderms. There is probably competition between this species and Gadus morhua (Ref. 1371). Over 12 nucleotide substitutions in the 307 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene differentiate this species from Gadus morhua (Ref. 40214).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00446 - 0.01415), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3-4; tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .