Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 380 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 30°N - 11°N, 179°W - 153°W (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4887); max. published weight: 22.7 kg (Ref. 4887)
soft rays: 9. Distinguished by the following characteristics: juveniles greyish brown to dark brown body color with 8 vertical series of white spots on body; adults dark brown with less distinct vertical series of white spots and obscured by numerous additional pale spots and blotches of variable size; fins mostly unspotted; depth of body contained 2.3-2.7 times in SL, width 2.0-2.5 times in depth; head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital area, width subequal to eye diameter for fish 10-20cm SL; subangular preopercle, 3-5 enlarged serrae at angle; fleshy ventral edge of preopercle, without serrae; smooth edge of interopercle and subopercle or with a few serrae; convex upper edge of operculum; ovate and enlarged posterior nostrils of adults, larger than anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Eastern Central Pacific: known only from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island.
Occurs in deep waters (Ref. 7364). Benthic and benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds mainly on fish and crustaceans (Ref. 89707). A good fish to eat, fleshy, eaten any way except raw (Ref. 7364).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings, 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .