Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 80 - 130 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 35°N - 20°S, 95°E - 179°W (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: Andaman Sea to southern Japan, Taiwan, China, Philippines, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), northwestern Australia, and Fiji.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head, body and median fins are pale grey; 5 broad dark brown bars, first 2 extending into the spinous part of dorsal fin, 3rd and 4th bars extending into the soft dorsal and anal fins, 5th dark bar at the base of the caudal fin; edges of dorsal parts of body bars with small black spots; nape with dark brown saddle blotch, small black spots mainly along edge of the blotch; cheeks, snout, interorbital area, jaws and chest mostly dark brown, with 2-3 white bands radiating from the eye; irregular black bar on the middle of the caudal fin; yellow maxillary groove; body depth less than head length, 2.5-3.0 times in SL; head length 2.1-2.4 times in SL; rounded preopercle, 3-6 enlarged serrae at the angle; upper edge of operculum slightly convex; nostrils subequal or posterior nostril larger than anterior; scaly maxilla, reaching about vertical at rear edge of eye; 2 rows of teeth at midside of lower jaw; pectoral and pelvic fin length are equal, 1.7-2.3 times in head length; rounded caudal fin; ctenoid lateral body scales, few auxiliary scales in adults (Ref. 089707).
Poorly known species from deep waters of western Pacific (Ref. 089707). Sold fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.2 - 27.6, mean 23.9 (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00553 - 0.02385), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .