Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical, preferred ?; 22°N - 19°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44091)
Generally brown to black in color; pelvic fins separate rather than fused into a disc; young fish <2.5 cm long are distinctively jet black on the upper body and lighter on the sides and belly (Ref. 44091).
Oceania: Hawaii. Reported from USA (Ref. 3881).
Found in both altered and unaltered streams, but being unable to climb waterfalls restricts its habitat to the lower reaches of streams and estuaries; can be observed darting into the mud and leaf litter, or sheltering among rocks and cobble, rarely showing in the open; highly predaceous on various invertebrates, e.g. slow-moving thiarid snails and asiatic clams, and fishes; traditionally caught with a baited hook attached to a short stick (fishing method called kiomo'omo); relished as a food item, particularly when wrapped with leaves and roasted; now prized as bait by near-shore papio fisherman (Ref. 44091).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tinker, S.W., 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p. (Ref. 583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00196 - 0.01170), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .