Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 440 m (Ref. 26346). Subtropical; 10°S - 50°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 400 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578); max. published weight: 214.0 kg (Ref. 3263)
(total): 0. A huge, plain, dark stingray with a broadly angular snout and pectoral disc; tail thick-based and tapering to a slender whip, much longer than body, and with no upper caudal finfold but with a long lower one end far in front of tail tip; upper disc and tail of large juveniles and adults roughened by large flat thorns (absent in small individuals); 1 or 2 stings on tail (Ref. 5578). Dark olive green, grey or black dorsally, white ventrally without markings (Ref. 26346).
Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique, South Africa, Reunion (Ref. 33390), southern Australia, and New Zealand.
Common inshore (Ref. 6871) but reported to 440 m depth (Ref. 26346). Found in estuaries, lagoons, and around reefs (Ref. 12951). Reported to enter freshwater in Australia (Ref. 12951). Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 5578). Feeds on crabs, mantis shrimps, bivalves, polychaetes and conger eels (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). With young free swimming by 35 cm WD (Ref. 6871). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 6871)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .