Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Bolbometopon: Greek, bolbos-ou = onion + Greek, metopon = brow (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 34°N - 26°S, 32°E - 145°W (Ref. 116632)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa and the Line Islands, north to the Yaeyama and Wake islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9793); max. published weight: 46.0 kg (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 9. Median predorsal scales 2 to 4 (may be obscured by hump); scales on cheek scale rows 1(4-6), 2(3-6), 3(1-2) (Ref. 9793). Sometimes confused with the humphead wrasse or other 'humphead' parrotfishes (Ref. 1602). Unlike the wrasse, it has a vertical head profile, and unlike other parrotfishes, it is uniformly covered except for the leading edge of the head which is often light green to pink, and has a nodular outer surface to its beak (Ref. 1602). The primary phase is a dull gray with scattered white spots, gradually becoming uniformly dark green (Ref. 1602).
Juveniles found in lagoons; adults in clear outer lagoon and seaward reefs up to depths of at least 30 m (Ref. 9710). Usually in small groups. Feeds on benthic algae, live corals (Ref. 9710) and shellfishes (Ref. 58784). May ram its head against corals to facilitate feeding (Ref. 9710). Sleeps in caves and often in shipwrecks at night (Ref. 48636). The largest and wariest of the parrotfishes. Vulnerable to overfishing (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Also Ref. 103751.
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 2570 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00659 - 0.03029), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .