Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 25°C - ?; 30°N - 35°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30874); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 10 - 11. The body is generally greenish-brown in color, the back, sides and caudal fin profusely speckled with white spots, and the belly marked with white bars. A single bent lateral line. Body with small spines except around snout and caudal peduncle. Each nostril with two fleshy solid tentacles. Restricted gill opening.
Indo-Pacific : Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4919) to Panama, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Eastern Pacific: Baja California and the Gulf of California to Panama (Ref. 9349, 11482).
Inhabit outer reef slopes to depths of at least 50 m, inner reef flats and lagoons. Juveniles common in weedy areas of estuaries (Ref. 4919). Also found in coastal bays and estuaries, usually near rocky reef or on sand-stretches between reefs with low algae-rubble reef to about 20 meters depth, or in shallow with sparse seagrass growth (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary and territorial on sandy to rubble areas. Feed on fleshy, calcareous, or coralline algae, detritus, mollusks, tunicates, sponges, corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs, tube worms and echinoderms (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03715 (0.02201 - 0.06271), b=2.87 (2.73 - 3.01), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .