Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Brackish; pelagic; oceanodromous. Temperate; 48°N - 35°N, 45°E - 56°E (Ref. 188)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
spines: 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. gill rakers thick and coarse, shorter, equal to or a little longer than gill filaments, either straight or curved, pointed or blunt, occasionally even bifurcated at tips. Teeth well developed in both jaws. Other Caspian shads have deeper, more shad-like bodies.
Former USSR and Asia: Caspian Sea.
Occurs in brackish water and non-anadromous, but strongly migratory. Feeds on small clupeids, gobies, atherines, also crustaceans and occasionally insects and mollusks. Spawning patterns among the subspecies vary but occur mostly in spring and summer after an inshore migration and movement northward.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Various spawning patterns among the subspecies (mostly in spring and summer after an inshore migration and movement northward).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00563 - 0.01478), b=2.97 (2.84 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .