Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Castelnau.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 7345), usually 2 - 25 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 21°C - 25°C (Ref. 27115); 43°N - 33°S, 98°W - 13°W
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda southward to the Gulf of Mexico (except in the northeast) and Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension and St. Helena islands (Ref. 7345) off Angola (Ref. 26938). A recent record from Seychelles is probably a locality error (Ref. 13442).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.5, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 38.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9761); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3142); max. reported age: 31 years (Ref. 52229)
Inhabits shallow bottoms with coral or rocky formations (Ref. 13628). Usually occurs in groups of five or more individuals. Mainly diurnal species. Feeds on algae. The spine on both sides of the caudal peduncle may inflict painful wounds (Ref. 5217). Marketed fresh. Minimum depth reported from Ref. 27115.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 5217)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.6 (based on 426 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01253 - 0.02898), b=2.91 (2.79 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.3-1.5; tmax=31).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .