Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan through Southeast Asia to New Guinea. Elsewhere extending to the Chinese coast.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 17.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
soft rays: 9. Greenish dorsally; flanks and abdomen silvery (Ref. 9812). First dorsal fin with black margin, other fins dusky (Ref. 9812). Pectoral fins with dark spot dorsally at origin (Ref. 9812).
A shallow-water, schooling species which enters estuaries and freshwaters. Spawn at sea. Juveniles may be found in rice fields and mangrove swamps (Ref. 9812). Feed on small algae, diatoms, and other organic matter, both living and detrital, taken in with sand and mud. Fries feed on copepods and floating algae. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh, boiled (Thailand), canned or frozen (Australia); roe marketed salted (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, J.M., 1984. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2830)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.1, mean 28.3 (based on 1336 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00543 - 0.02429), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .